CCSVI or Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is a chronic condition if left untreated, which causes blood from the brain and spine to be slowed or stopped in its attempt to flow back to the heart.
A leading surgeon named Dr. Paolo Zamboni from Italy completed a preliminary study using ultrasound and MRV (magnetic resonance venography) to examine the blood vessels leading in and out of the brain of hundreds of patients and ordinary healthy controls. Dr. Zamboni discovered that the majority of the patients with multiple sclerosis including one of which happened to be his wife, had jugular and azygos veins which drain blood from the brain distorted or blocked. In the healthy controls without multiple sclerosis, the veins or vessels were not.
The condition is caused by Stenosis, a narrowing of the veins that are primarily used to drain a human’s blood from the spine and brain. This usually occurs in the jugular and azygos veins. When these veins become narrowed blood takes longer to get back to the heart and in time, causes the blood to reflux. Reflux is the term given to blood being forced back into the brain or spine. If this occurs leakage of red blood cells and other fluids can flow into the tissue of the brain and spine, at times crossing the crucial blood brain barrier. If blood stays in the brain for a prolonged period a slowed perfusion may occur. This is the delay of deoxygenated blood leaving the head. This causes a lack of oxygen or what is known as hypoxia in the brain and has been linked to fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis.